Electronic logic gates that operate using N logic state levels, where N is greater than 2, and methods of operating such gates. The electronic logic gates operate according to truth tables. At least two input signals each having a logic state that can range over more than two logic states are provided to the logic gates. The logic gates each provide an output signal that can have one of N logic states. Examples of gates described include NAND/NAND gates having two inputs A and B and NAND/NAND gates having three inputs A, B, and C, where A, B and C can take any of four logic states. Systems using such gates are described, and their operation illustrated. Optical logic gates that operate using N logic state levels are also described.